Monday, August 29, 2011

About Computer Science and Informatics

Computer Science ≠ Informatics

What is Computer Science?
What is Informatics?

Computer Science and Informatics were considered identical terms. Today, the terms are different. The general public sometimes confuses Computer Science with Informatics or Information Technology (IT). Computing (information and knowledge processing) has changed the world and continues to influence nearly every aspect of our lives, including medicine and health care, business and finance, education and training, science and technology, politics and government, and entertainment.

"Computer Science (CS) is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems." -

"Informatics studies the application of information technology to practically any field, while considering its impact on individuals, organizations, and society. It uses computation as a universal tool to solve problems in other fields, to communicate, and to express ideas." Dennis P. Groth, Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason, Why an Informatics Degree?, Communications of the ACM, feb. 2010



Computer science and Informatics
Computer science is a popular major for first-year students at Iowa. It develops competence in programming principles and methodologies, problem-solving techniques, mathematics, computer systems, data manipulation, and computer applications.
The informatics major combines competence in computational methods with expertise in a particular domain, such as geography or public health, which supports informed decision making.
Informatics students combine courses that provide a strong foundation in computing with work in one of several cognates, creating multidimensional programs that suit the educational and economic needs of the 21st century.



"Informatics studies the application of information technology to practically any field, while considering its impact on individuals, organizations, and society. It uses computation as a universal tool to solve problems in other fields, to communicate, and to express ideas.
Formally, informatics is the study of the structure and behavior of natural and artificial systems that generate, process, store, and communicate information. Informatics also includes (1) the study of the cognitive, social, legal, and economic impact of information systems; (2) research and development of technologies needed to implement artificial information systems that enhance our cognitive abilities; and (3) the development and use of advanced information systems in science, engineering, arts, humanities, education, and business. Because so much information can be stored digitally, we can manipulate it by computer. And because there is so much information, computing is often the only way to make information beneficial to humanity.
The ability to handle vast amounts of information cheaply has changed the way we live. Advances in computing power, the World Wide Web, search engines, and large-scale collaborative initiatives like Wikipedia have revolutionized the way knowledge is created and shared. We have new forms of social interaction — from email, IM, and blogs to eBay, Facebook, and YouTube — and collaborative art and entertainment - from Limewire and podcasts to Guitar Hero and Second Life. Information technology (IT) has become a ubiquitous, indispensable component of our everyday lives, helping — or hindering — us as we manage information, create knowledge, and make decisions.
Within the humanities, digital content is changing the way we visualize, present, understand, and experience history and literature. Within the fine arts, artists are using high-tech tools to construct virtual worlds, produce animations, and make music. Within the social, biological, and physical sciences, pattern analysis, data mining, visualization of massive data sets, and large-scale simulation of biological and physical processes, are enabling new discoveries and insights.
To leverage these advances to solve problems across all disciplines requires knowledge of how to represent problems and domain-specific data, how to structure processes, how to handle work-flow, how to manage complexity, and how to interpret results. To fully participate as an informed member of society, we must appreciate the historical, ethical, and social ramifications of these accelerating changes.
Informatics addresses all of these issues and provides tools for handling them.

3. Department of Informatics, University of California, Irvine

"Computing and information technology play an increasingly pervasive role in our daily lives. Informatics is based on recognizing that the design of this technology is not solely a technical matter, but must focus on the relationship between the technology and its use in real-world settings. That is, informatics designs solutions in context, and takes into account the social, cultural and organizational settings in which computing and information technology will be used."
These aspects of computer science form the core of informatics: software engineering, information retrieval and management, programming languages, human-computer interaction, computer-supported collaborative work, ubiquitous computing, privacy and security, and the effects of technology on society.
At its periphery, informatics touches upon many different disciplines, including management, digital arts, visualization, economics, social science, cognitive science, organizational computing, medical informatics, game technology, and many others.

"What was a key topic for study and classroom discussion in the 1970s or 1980s is not necessarily - nor very likely - to be so key in the 21st century. New topics emerge continuously that require prominent positions in curricula, yet we cannot forget the foundations and knowledge that have stood the test of time."
André van der Hoek, Professor and Chair, Department of Informatics

Saturday, August 13, 2011

Complexity of learning process

Learning is a process.

1. What is "complexity"?
2. Predictability, Complexity, and Learning
3. Learning environments are increasingly complex ?
4. Adaptive governance, networks and learning
5. Principles of Learning

Image: Animation of Learning Process, SWWRocBot, A Unique Learning Environment
By Nick Clark,

Read more:

Learning from projects and practice

Complexitatea procesului de invatare (in Romanian)

De-a lungul vremii, in toate domeniile stiintifice se schimba teoriile, metodele si tehnicile de investigare, de aceea dinamica cunoasterii umane influenteaza dezvoltarea generala a societatii umane. Pentru a obtine evolutie si eficienta in viata sa, omul trebuie sa se adapteze continuu la aceste schimbari ale cunoasterii. In domeniul educatiei, si in special al invatarii si perfectionarii, aparitia de noi tehnologii ale informatiei si comunicarii (TIC), imbunatatirea teoriilor pedagogice si psihologice, obliga pe elevi/studenti, profesori, parinti si pe specialisti, sa se adapteze la aceste schimbari.

Ce fac elevii si studentii? Ce fac profesorii si parintii? Ce fac specialistii? Ce fac guvernele tarilor?

Models and Solutions: SWWRocBot
An Example
SWWRocBot, A Unique Learning Environment by Nick Clark (Information Science & Learning Technologies, Robotics Coach, School Without Walls); SWWRocBot is a site laying out the Challenges, Solutions and Results that are the foundations of a unique learning environment.
This learning environment is based on the work of Nick Clark, author of "The Geometry of Learning and the Architecture of Knowledge". It will be a multi-disciplinary, interactive and immersive experience (See animation above) with positive outcomes for the following stake holders:
-The School (School Without Walls)
-The City School System
-Community Business Partners
-Community Organization Partners
-Individuals whose talents are required for the success of the program

The Need for Clear Definitions
"In any scientific discipline there are many reasons to use terms that have precise definitions. Understanding the terminology of a discipline is essential to learning a subject and precise terminology enables us to communicate ideas clearly with other people. In computer science the problem is even more acute: we need to construct software and hardware components that must smoothly interoperate across interfaces with clients and other components in distributed systems. The definitions of these interfaces need to be precisely specified for interoperability and good systems performance. Computer science already has a number of useful clearly defined models of computation whose behaviors and capabilities are well understood. We should use such models as part of any definition of the term computation. However, for new domains of investigation where there are no appropriate models it may be necessary to invent new formalisms to represent the systems under study."
Alfred V. Aho (Lawrence Gussman Professor in the Computer Science Department at Columbia University).


1. What is "complexity"?

Melanie Mitchell (Professor of Computer Science at Portland State University): I would call this a "deceptively simple" question—in fact, it is one of the most difficult questions of all! The field of complexity arose out of the strong feeling of some scientists that there are deep similarities among certain highly "complex" systems in nature, society, and technology. Examples of such systems include the brain, the immune system, cells, insect societies, economies, the World Wide Web, and so on. By "similarities," I don't mean that there are necessarily a single set of principles that governs these disparate systems, but rather that all these systems exhibit behavior that has been described as "adaptive," "life-like," "intelligent," and "emergent." None of these terms have precise meanings, yet, which makes a formal definition of "complex system" impossible at this time. A system with large numbers of interacting components, in which the components are relatively simple compared with the system as a whole, in which there is no central control or global communication among the components, and in which the interactions among the components gives rise to complex behavior. Here, "complex behavior" refers to the informal terms (e.g., adaptive, emergent) that I listed above.

Ref.: Ubiquity, Volume 2011, Number April (2011), Pages 1-6,

2. Predictability, Complexity, and Learning

"One of the most important examples of prediction is the phenomenon of generalization in learning. Learning is formalized as finding a model that explains or describes a set of observations, but again this is useful only because we expect this model will continue to be valid. In the language of learning theory (see, for example, Vapnik, 1998), an animal can gain selective advantage not from its performance on the training data but only from its performance at generalization. Generalizing—and not “overfitting” the training data—is precisely the problemof isolating those features of the data that have predictive value (see also Bialek and Tishby). Furthermore, we know that the success of generalization hinges on controlling the complexity of the models that we are willing to consider as possibilities.”

Predictability, Complexity, and Learning, Neural Computation 13, 2409–2463 (2001) (Articles Communicated by Jean-Pierre Nadal) by William Bialek (NEC Research Institute, Princeton, U.S.A.), Ilya Nemenman (NEC Research Institute, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A., and Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, U.S.A.), Naftali Tishby (NEC Research Institute, Princeton, U.S.A., and School of Computer Science and Engineering and Center for Neural Computation, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel)

3. Learning environments are increasingly complex?

Book - Handling complexity in learning environments: theory and research
By Jan Elen, Richard Edward Clark, Joost Lowyck, European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, 2006, Elsevier Ltd.
What do we mean when we say that "learning environments are increasingly complex"? What do we know about the cognitive processing that occurs during complex learning? How can we provide effective instructional support for students who must learn and apply complex knowledge? These questions, and related issues, have fascinated educators and educational researchers for many years and are they are the focus of this book.


4. Adaptive governace, networks and learning
“Learning is therefore essential for stakeholders to develop their ability to deal effectively with new situations and to prepare for change and surprise.” Örjan Bodin ( Adaptive governance, networks and learning)

Halldén, O., Lundholm C. (2009). 25-30 August. Conceptual Change and the Complexity of Learning. Threshold Questions, Meaning making and Contextuality. Paper presented at the 13th conference European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Amsterdam, Holland.

5.Principles of Learning
- Organizing for Effort
- Clear Expectations
- Fair and Credible Evaluations
- Recognition of Accomplishment
- Academic Rigor in a Thinking Curriculum
- Accountable Talk®
- Socializing Intelligence
- Self-management of Learning


"Research in education demonstrates that, by working hard, virtually all students are capable of high achievement. These findings have caused educators to recognize the primacy of effort, rather than following ingrained assumptions about innate aptitude. Effort-based education research has started to demonstrate that properly focused student efforts not only yield high achievement for all students, but can actually create ability. People can become smart by working hard at the right kinds of learning tasks." Institute for Learning (IFL), University of Pittsburgh.

Thursday, August 11, 2011

Professor Peter J. Denning

Peter J. Denning is best known for pioneering work in virtual memory. He was a pioneer in the development of principles for operating systems and contributed the memory management methods used in all operating systems. Known for Virtual Memory, Working Set, Principle of locality.
• He made substantial contributions to performance evaluation when that industry was getting launched. Denning has been a major influence in computing education.
• In 1999, he expanded the search for fundamental principles to cover all of computing. The discovery of natural information processes in biology, physics, economics, materials, and other fields convinced him that the basic definitions of computation had to be modified to encompass natural information processes as well as artificial.
• In 2007 ACM gave him a special award for 40 years of continuous volunteer service and the NSF gave him one of two national Distinguished Education Fellow awards.

Learning from failures?
"The key idea is not failure, but learning. The process of embracing uncertainty and adventuring in the mysteries of the world is a learning process. We cannot learn if we do not try. When something we try fails, we seek to understand what made it fail and modify our future behavior when we try again. I don't see learning from failures to be a prediction method, but a practice for blending with the unfolding world.", Peter_J._Denning, An Interview with Peter Denning the end of the future by Brian Branagan, Ubiquity ACM, may 2011

Note: Ubiquity is publication of ACM, Peter J. Denning - Editor-in-Chief; Ubiquity is ACM's peer-reviewed Web-based magazine devoted to the future of computing and the people who are creating it.


Tuesday, August 9, 2011

Carta universitara si alegeri 2011

Update (11 dec.): Confirmarea Rectorului UB:Profesorul Mircea Dumitru (in sedinta de Senat, in prezenra Ministrului de resort)
Update (15 dec.): Alegerea Rectorului UB: Prof. dr. Mircea Dumitru.
Update (24 nov.): Carta UB avizata de MECTS (sept.2011)
Art. 40.
Cadrele didactice şi cercetătorii din Universitate au următoarele responsabilităţi:
b) să-si îmbunătăţească activitatea didactică, având mereu în vedere evaluarea rezultatelor învăţării, autonomia studentului, capacitatea lui de gândire critică, de rezolvare a problemelor, de lucru în echipă, de integrare într-o organizaţie după absolvire;

1. Consideratii generale
2. Carta UB
2. Carta ASE Bucuresti
3. Carta UMF Cluj-Napoca
4. Clasificare universitati (6 sept.)

Anexa: Top 10 universităţi - Top Shanghai (2010)

1. Consideratii generale
In prezent, universitatile din Romania (de stat si private) desfasoara activitati diverse privind adaptarea organizarii, functionarii si managementului la cerintele prevederilor din noua Legea a invatamantului nr. 1/2011. Cibernetic vorbind, orice sistem este eficient si modern daca are organizare, functionare si management corespunzator misiunii lui.
• Starea actuala a universitatilor este rezultatul contextului general din societate, dar si al starii organizarii, functionarii si managementului de la nivelul fiecarei universitati. Resursa umana este primordiala ca in orice tip de activitate din societate. Aceasta depinde de educatie, sanatate, cultura si de nivelul de dezvoltare a societatii. De aceea, guvernele majoritatii tarilor din lume investesc in EDUCATIE, SANATATE, CULTURA.
• Societatea cunoasterii catre care tinde omenirea, se bazeaza pe o noua abordare a cunoasterii si o noua atitudine a omului fata de dezvoltare si fata de perfectionarea lui profesionala. Mentalitatile invechite, obiceiurile marunte, egoismul uman, interesele ascunse si meschine, lacomia si parvenirea, vor fi marginalizate prin actiuni ferme, reguli si legi clare si precise.
• Unde sunt reguli si legi neclare si incomplete, acolo e mediu propice pentru obstacole si ingradiri ale libertatii si drepturilor cetatenilor, pentru nedreptati aduse cetatenilor sau pentru instaurarea puterii celor mediocrii si, astfel o rasturnare a valorilor in societate.

Concluzii: rezultatele Referendumului universitar (iunie 2011) pentru alegerea modalității de desemnare a rectorului au aratat ca toate universitatile (cred ca nu exista exceptii!) au optat ca rectorul instituţiei să fie ales "pe bază de alegeri generale, prin vot universal, direct, secret şi egal".

Alegeri 2011: Noutatea consta in faptul ca la nivelul Departamentelor, Facultatilor si Senatului, precum si la alegerea Rectorului, vor fi "alegeri generale, prin vot universal, direct, secret şi egal". Prin urmare, fiecare scrutin de alegeri necesita metodologii si regulamente. Daca la ASE Bucuresti si la UMF Cluj-Napoca s-au elaborat regulamentele electorale (la UMF Cluj deja s-a stabilit calendarul electoral: a se vedea la sfarsit), la UB acest subiect este abordat mai simplu (se pare ca organizarea alegerilor este transferata facultatilor! e vorba de art. 126): vom vedea cum se va implementa in practica.

2. Carta UB
ref.: (.pdf)
Observatii de redactare:
- art. 70 si 71 sunt identice
- La cap. V nu exista sectiunea I (incepe cu sectiunea II; probabil inainte de art. 55 trebuie denumita sectiunea I ORGANELE DE CONDUCERE); Carta trebuie avizata de minister, poate se vor depista acestea.

Misiunea unei Universităţii in viziunea UB
Art. 10.
(1) Misiunea Universităţii are trei componente: formare, cercetare şi contribuţie la dezvoltarea societăţii româneşti.
(2) În domeniul formării, Universitatea urmăreşte formarea unor specialişti capabili şi responsabili, înzestraţi cu gândire critică, cu abilităţi de leadership şi de înţelegere a problematicii legate de progresul economic şi social, pentru o societate bazată pe cunoaştere.
(3) Universitatea promovează cercetarea fundamentală şi cea aplicată, în domeniile ştiinţelor exacte, ştiinţelor inginereşti, experimentale, sociale şi umane, cu scopul de a contribui la progresul cunoaşterii, la difuzarea cunoştinţelor ştiinţifice şi a creaţiei artistice, în vederea consolidării unei culturi naţionale integrate în spaţiul european şi deschise la fenomenele de globalizare.
(4) Universitatea contribuie la modernizarea României, prin propunerea de politici publice, de conţinut legislativ, prin inovarea în domeniul practicilor instituţionale, prin inovarea tehnologică şi prin comunicarea publică naţională şi internaţională.

De remarcat alin (4) ce reclama modalitati de implementare. In rest, important este CUM se realizeaza aceasta MISIUNE! Carta universitara trebuie sa indice si sa prevada clar, explicit si fara echivoc modalitatile. Valabil pentru toate universitatile. Pana acum , CUM a fost?

Despre transparenţa decizională
Mi se datoreaza (am trimis propuneri la comisia de redactare) litera n) de la art. 39:
n) dreptul de a fi informat cu privire la deciziile curente ale Senatului, Consiliului Facultăţii şi Consiliului Departamentului.
Trebuie avut in vedere neaparat:
Art. 53.
(1) Pentru validitatea întrunirilor organelor colective de conducere ale Universităţii este necesar un cvorum de prezenţă de cel puţin 2/3 din numărul membrilor respectivelor organe.
(2) Cvorumul de prezenţă se menţionează în minuta şedinţei organului de conducere al Universităţii. Minuta se publică după validarea acesteia în următoarea şedinţă

Despre alegeri
La o sumara investigare, daca nu gresesc, cred ca s-a omis sa se elaboreze un regulament electoral (a se vedea art. 8), asa cum celelalte universitati au realizat.

Noutate: înfiinţarea de societăţi comerciale (art. 19)
Important: Art. 57.
(1) Departamentul este unitatea academică funcţională care asigură producerea, transmiterea şi valorificarea cunoaşterii în unul sau mai multe domenii de specialitate.
(2) Un departament poate avea în compunere, de regulă, între 20 şi 50 de membri titulari; excepţii pot reprezenta departamentele nou înfiinţate în domenii noi sau interdisciplinare. În cazul în care, timp de 3 ani succesivi, numărul membrilor unui departament nu respectă limitele de mai sus, se va proceda la reorganizarea respectivului departament.

Practica studentilor si colaborarea cu mediul de afaceri si piata muncii
- in afara de referirea la practica pedagogica, nu se abordeaza aceasta problema majora a invatamantului superior, de ce oare?
- practica de specialitate este un aspect cu o influenta mare privind formarea de specialisti care sa faca fata exigentelor din piata muncii
- colaborarea cu mediul de afaceri conduce la inserţie mare pe piaţa muncii a absolvenţilor
Nota: exista Legea 258/2007 privind practica elevilor şi studenţilor. Poate este abrogata! Trebuie studiat acest aspect.
Art. 1. - Practica este activitatea desfăşurată de elevi şi studenţi, în conformitate cu planul de învăţământ, care are drept scop verificarea aplicabilităţii cunoştinţelor teoretice însuşite de aceştia în cadrul programului de instruire.

2. Carta ASE Bucuresti

Ref.: (.pdf)

Art. 37.
(8) adoptă o metodologie de alegeri pentru reglementarea proceselor elective privind structurile universitare de conducere, în termen de maximum 60 de zile de la data validării raportului comisiei care organizează procesul de votare a modalităţii de desemnare a rectorului;
Art. 45. (1) Procedurile elective sau concursurile publice pentru ocuparea funcţiilor de conducere sunt reglementate prin metodologia elaborată de consiliul de administraţie şi aprobată de către senatul universitar în termen de maximum 60 de zile de la data validării de către senatul universitar a raportului biroului electoral care organizează procesul de votare amodalităţii de desemnare a rectorului.

3. Carta UMF Cluj-Napoca

Ref.: (.pdf)

-adoptat de Senatul UMF “Iuliu Haţieganu” în data de 28 iunie 2011 –
Art. 22
(1) Candidaturile pentru Consiliul Facultăţii se înscriu pe buletinul de vot grupate pe departamente, cu ordonare alfabetică după numele de familie al candidaţilor din fiecare departament în parte.
(2) Din lista de candidaţi, fiecare elector votează pentru cel mult atâtea persoane câte locuri are Consiliul Facultăţii.

Art. 28
(1) Candidaţii pentru Senat ai unei Facultăţi sunt ordonaţi alfabetic pe buletinele de vot, în ordinea crescătoare a numelui de familie, fără a se ţine cont de departamentul de provenienţă.
(2) Din lista de candidaţi, fiecare elector va vota pentru cel mult atâtea persoane câte locuri are atribuită Facultatea în Senat.

Anexa 1
Calendar de alegeri:
• 15 septembrie 2011 - 1 octombrie 2011 – Desemnare şefi de disciplină; şedinţa de investire sau alegeri la fiecare disciplină.
• 15 septembrie 2011 - 15 octombrie 2011 – Depunere candidaturi pentru Director de departament (CV şi plan managerial) şi depunere CV pentru candidatii in Consiliului Departamentului.
• 15 octombrie 2011 - 7 noiembrie 2011 – Alegeri la nivel de departamente: Consiliul Departamentului; Directorul departamentului; Desemnare candidaţi pentru Consiliul Facultăţii; Desemnare candidaţi pentru Senatul Universităţii
• 8-13 noiembrie 2011 – Desemnarea CEF şi CEU
• 7-21 noiembrie 2011 – Depunere şi afisare pe site-ul Universităţii a CV-urilor candidaţilor pentru Consiliul Facultăţii şi pentru Senatul Universităţii
• 1 octombrie 2011 - 21 noiembrie 2011 – Depunere candidaturi pentru funcţia de Rector
În ziua de 8 decembrie 2011 se organizează o şedinţa de prezentare publică a platformelor electorale ale tuturor candidaţilor la funcţia de rector, cu invitarea întregii comunităţi academice. Procedurile de desfăşurare a acestei şedinţe sunt cele aprobate de Senatul universităţii.
• 1 noiembrie 2011-10 decembrie 2011 – Depunere candidaturi pentru funcţia de Decan
• 15 decembrie 2011 – Alegeri: Consiliile Facultăţilor; Senatul Universităţii; Rector

4. Clasificare universitati (6 sept. 2011)

Clasificarea europeana a universitatilor din Romania
Clasificare realizata de Asociatia Universitatilor Europene (European Quality Assurance Register-EQAR), la solicitarea ministrului român al educaţie.

EUA supports implementation of Romanian higher education reforms: Government announces classification of universities
- Ref.:

Categoria I (Licenta, Master, Doctorat): Universitati de Cercetare Avansata si Educatie
1. Universitatea din Bucuresti
2. Universitatea “Babes – Bolyai” din Cluj-Napoca
3. Universitatea "Al.I. Cuza" din Iasi
4. Academia de Studii Economice din Bucuresti (ASE)
5. Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara din Cluj-Napoca
6. Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie “Carol Davila” din Bucuresti
7. Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie din Iasi
8. Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie “Iuliu Hateganu” din Cluj-Napoca
9. Universitatea Politehnica Bucuresti
10. Universitatea Tehnica “Gheorghe Asachi” din Iasi
11. Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca
12. Universitatea Politehnica din Timisoara

Categoria a II-a (Licenta, Master): Universitati de Educatie si Cercetare Stiintifica
1. Universitatea de Vest din Timisoara
2. Universitatea din Craiova
3. Universitatea Transilvania din Brasov
4. Universitatea “Ovidius” din Constanta
5. Universitatea “Dunarea de Jos” din Galati
6. Universitatea “Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu
7. Universitatea din Oradea
8. SNSPA Bucuresti
9. Univ. de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara”Ion Ionescu de la Brad” din Iasi
10. Universitatea de Stiinte Agronomice si Medicina Veterinara din Bucuresti
11. Univ. de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara a Banatului din Timisoara
12. Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie “Victor Babes” din Timisoara
13. Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie din Craiova
14. Universitatea Tehnica de Constructii Bucuresti
15. Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie din Targu Mures
+ Universitatile militare si Universitatile de creatie artistica (circa 12 universitati de arte si militare)

Categoria a III-a (Licenta): Universitati de Educatie
- restul

Anexa: Top Shanghai (2010)
Primele 10 universităţi - Top Shanghai
1. Universitatea Harvard, SUA
2. Universitatea Stanford, SUA
3. Institutul de Tehnologie Massachusetts, SUA
4. Universitatea California, Berkley, SUA
5. Universitatea Cambridge, Marea Britanie
6. Institutul de Tehnologie California, SUA
7. Universitatea Princeton, SUA
8. Universitatea Columbia, SUA
9. Universitatea Chicago, SUA
10. Universitatea Oxford, Marea Britanie

2016: Juno Rockets Toward Jupiter

When the robotic Juno spacecraft reaches Jupiter in 2016, it will spend just over a year circling the Solar System's largest planet, using its unique cadre of instruments to probe the planet, sending back clues of its structure and origin.


Friday, August 5, 2011

21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age

21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age Project


Literacy is NOT Enough: 21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age

Powerful technologies and information systems have caused facts to become obsolete faster, and knowledge built on these facts to become less durable.

Literacy is NOT Enough: The New Learning Process

The New Learning Process covers a fundamental shift in the basic paradigm of teaching that is required to prepare digital students for 21st century life.

What do we do with all this information?

Our society has been irreversibly affected by a new phenomenon in InfoWhelm - an unparalleled access to a wealth of online information, never before seen or heard of. Learning has truly become a lifelong pursuit, and it can happen anytime and anywhere in our Information age. But how do we determine good from the bad, interpret right from wrong, and distinguish complete, accurate, and usable data from a sea of irrelevance and digital inundation? The skills to help us best understand and make use of the wealth of knowledge at our fingertips is essential to life and success both in the classrooms and workforces of the 21st century