Thursday, January 22, 2015

The Putnam Math Competition (USA) and Romanian mathematicians in world

The William Lowell Putnam Mathematics Competition is a North American math contest for college students. The Putnam Mathematical Competition (USA) – since 1938:

Read more:
- Ciprian Manolescu (UCLA), the books the problems,
- Kiran Kedlaya,
- Ciprian Manolescu - A Proof That Some Spaces Can’t Be Cut By: Kevin Hartnett, January 13, 2015,
- Image source (Triangulated): Glen Faught

The books the problems: PUTNAM and BEYOND

Putnam and Beyond, by Titu Andreescu and Razvan Gelca (935-problems), Springer (2007), ISBN 978-0-387-68445-1, 798 p., available online: Sergey V. Lototsky (pdf)

Content: Methods of Proof, Algebra, Real Analysis, Geometry and Trigonometry, Number Theory, Combinatorics and Probability.
"Putnam and Beyond takes the reader on a journey through the world of college mathematics, focusing on some of the most important concepts and results in the theories of polynomials, linear algebra, real analysis in one and several variables, differential equations, coordinate geometry, trigonometry, elementary number theory, combinatorics, and probability. Using the W.L. Putnam Mathematical Competition for undergraduates as an inspiring symbol to build an appropriate math background for graduate studies in pure or applied mathematics, the reader is eased into transitioning from problem-solving at the high school level to the university and beyond, that is, to mathematical research."
From the reviews: "A 935-problem and almost 800-page super-problem book with solutions, whose reading would certainly challenge, attract, and keep really busy any undergraduate student interested in acquiring various problem-solving techniques. ... the array of remarkable problem books has gained a new addition that could be really useful to undergraduate students. ... a book about excellence in mathematics, coming from a long cultural tradition whose history and experience can only help us deepen our understanding of how mathematics could be taught in a more attractive and inquisitive way." (Bogdan D. Suceava and Jack B. Gaumer, The Mathematical Intelligencer, Vol. 33 (2), 2011)

Note: Gazeta Matematica (Mathematics Gazette, Bucharest), proposed by M. Vlada [Real Analysis - solution 549 (p. 589), problem 549 (p. 190)]

Monday, January 19, 2015

From Piaget and Vygotsky to Bloom and Gardner

Theory of Cognitive Development (Piaget), Social Development Theory (Vygotsky) , Taxonomy of Learning Domains (Bloom&Anderson), Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner)

Performance – Competencies, Motivation, Abilities, Skills

Competencies are the state or quality of being adequately or well qualified to perform a task. A person gains competency through education, training, experience, and natural abilities. While there are many definitions of competency, most of them have two common components:
• The competencies are observable or measurable skills, knowledge, and abilities.
• The KSAs (knowledge, skills, attitude) must distinguish between superior and other performers.
Performance is focused behavior or purposeful work (Rudman, 1998, p. 205). That is, jobs exist to achieve specific and defined results (outputs) and people are employed so that organizations can achieve those results. This is performed by accomplishing tasks. Abilities are general human capacities related to the performance of tasks. They develop over time through the interaction of heredity and experience, and are long lasting (Desimone, Wernerl, 2012).

A recent study (Tay, Diener, 2011) discovered that as hypothesized by Maslow (1954), people tend to achieve basic and safety needs before other needs. However, fulfilling the various needs has relatively independent effects on a person's Subjective Well-Being. Thus rather than being a pyramid with the basic human needs arranged in a hierarchical order, it is more like a box with the basic human needs scattered within and depending on the situation and/or environment, different needs rise to the top to compensate for the deficient needs.
- Donald Clark,
- Knowles, M. (1975). Self-Directed Learning. New York: Association Press.
- Rudman, R. (1998). Performance Planning and Review. Warriewood, Australia: Business & professional Publishing.
- Tay, L., Diener, E. (2011). Needs and subjective well-being around the world.. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 101(2), Aug 2011, 354-365. doi: 10.1037/a0023779.
- Image source: Donald Clark,

The Mind/Brain Connection
The adult human brain contains about 11 billion cells called neurons and each neuron may have up to 10,000 connections with other neurons called synapses. One of the main theories held by neuroscientists, psychologists, and even some philosophers is that all knowledge and skills is a function of neurons and their synapses. Our brain captures certain aspects of each experience by eliminating certain neurons and synapses. That is, it works backwards when compared to a production factory. For example, to make a radio, you assemble components, while the brain works more like an artist sculpturing from a rock — certain pieces are chipped away.
Psychologist William Greenough of the University of Illinois has found that there is a rapid spurt of synapses during the first couple of months during a rat's life that occurs regardless of the amount or type of sensory experience. This period of synaptic blooming is followed by a period of sharp decline. This is, there is a pruning of synapses that occur based upon the activity of the brain. This is called experience-expectant learning (Cziko, 2000).
- Donald Clark,
- Cziko, Gary (2000). The Things We Do. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. free download

Jean Piaget (1896-1980)- Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. It was first developed by a Swiss developmental psychologist, Jean Piaget.

Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was one of the most influential researchers in the area of developmental psychology during the 20th century. Piaget originally trained in the areas of biology and philosophy and considered himself a "genetic epistemologist." He was mainly interested in the biological influences on "how we come to know." He believed that what distinguishes human beings from other animals is our ability to do "abstract symbolic reasoning." Piaget's views are often compared with those of Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), who looked more to social interaction as the primary source of cognition and behavior. This is somewhat similar to the distinctions made between Freud and Erikson in terms of the development of personality. The writings of Piaget (e.g., 1972, 1990; see Piaget, Gruber, & Voneche) and Vygotsky (e.g. Vygotsky, 1986; Vygotsky & Vygotsky, 1980), along with the work of John Dewey (e.g., Dewey, 1997a, 1997b), Jerome Bruner (e.g., 1966, 1974) and Ulrick Neisser (1967) form the basis of the constructivist theory of learning and instruction”.
Source: Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University,
Image source: ITCs in Education - This model proposes that information is processed and stored in 3 stages,

Jean Piaget: founder of Constructivism
Constructivism is a theory of knowledge (epistemology) that argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas. It has influenced a number of disciplines, including psychology, sociology, education and the history of science.

Constructivist principles of learning - design and explaining learning:
1. ACTIVE PROCESS - Learning is an active process in which the learner uses sensory input and constructs meaning by using it;
2. DEVELOPMENT - People learn how to learn as they learn;
3. MENTAL ACTION - The action is crucial to build a mental sense;
4. LANGUAGE - Learning involves language: the language we use influences learning;
5. SOCIAL ACTIVITY - Learning is a social activity: is intimately associated with our relationship with other human beings such as teachers, colleagues, family;
6. CONTEXT - Learning is contextual: we do not learn isolated facts and theories in an abstract taken from our minds, but in relation to what we know, what we believe, with our fears and prejudices;
7. EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE - It takes knowledge to learn: it is not possible to assimilate new knowledge without having some structure developed from previous knowledge. The more we know, the more we can learn;
8. MOTIVATIONAL SYSTEM - Motivation is a key concept in learning.

Source: Woolfolk Anita E. (1998), Educational Psychology, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, London Toronto, Sydney, Tokyo, Singapore.

The Information Processing Approach to Cognition
The Information Processing model places emphasis on how information entering through the senses is encoded, stored, retrieved and utilised by the brain. Thus, learning becomes the process of committing our symbolic representations to memory where they may be processed and the study of learning is primarily approach through the study of memory. One of the major issues in cognitive psychology is the study of memory. The dominant view is labeled the "stage theory" and is based on the work of Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968).
Organization (types) of knowledge: This model proposes that information is processed and stored in 3 stages (Sensory memory - STSS; Short-term memory - STM; Long-term memory - LTM). As information is stored in long-term memory, it is organized using one or more structures: declarative memory (generally refers to information we can talk about), procedural (how to - driving a car, riding a bike), and/or imagery (pictures).
Declarative Memory:
Semantic Memory- facts and generalized information (concepts, principles, rules; problem-solving strategies; learning strategies)
Episodic Memory- personal experience (information in stories and analogies)
- Huitt, W. (2003). The information processing approach to cognition. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date] from,
- ITCs in Education,
- O’Brien, D. 1993. How to Develop a Perfect Memory. London. Pavilion Books Limited.

Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) - Social Development Theory

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
The concept of the More Knowledgeable Other is integrally related to the second important principle of Vygotsky's work, the Zone of Proximal Development. This is an important concept that relates to the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a skilled partner.
The work of Lev Vygotsky (1934) has become the foundation of much research and theory in cognitive development over the past several decades, particularly of what has become known as Social Development Theory. Vygotsky's theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition Vygotsky, 1978), as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning."
"The work of Lev Vygotsky and other developmental psychologists has become the foundation of much research and theory in developmental cognition over the past several decades, particularly of what has become known as social development theory. Vygotsky's theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition (Vygotsky, 1978; Wertsch, 1985), as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning." Unlike Piaget's notion that children's development must necessarily precede their learning, Vygotsky argued, "learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function" (1978, p. 90). In other words, social learning tends to precede development".
Ref.: Galloway, C. M. (2001). Vygotsky's Constructionism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, amd technology. Retrieved (insert date) from

For example, the child could not solve the jigsaw puzzle (in the example above) by itself and would have taken a long time to do so (if at all), but was able to solve it following interaction with the father, and has developed competence at this skill that will be applied to future jigsaws. Vygotsky (1978) sees the Zone of Proximal Development as the area where the most sensitive instruction or guidance should be given - allowing the child to develop skills they will then use on their own - developing higher mental functions. Vygotsky also views interaction with peers as an effective way of developing skills and strategies. He suggests that teachers use cooperative learning exercises where less competent children develop with help from more skillful peers - within the zone of proximal development. Source: McLeod, S. A. (2007). Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved from
The classroom contains wonderful social ties necessary for learning in Vygotsky's theories. Using computers for technology in the classroom can augment and enhance the social dynamics of his theory by adding a prominent cultural tool. In order to utilize this technology, teachers can create lessons that require students to work in groups with task-related interaction, and utilize their higher order thinking skills. Ref.: Pepperdine University,

- McLeod, S. A. (2007). Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved from
- Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Chapter 6 Interaction between learning and development (79-91). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Source image: Pepperdine University,
Read more:

Benjamin Bloom (1913 – 1999) - Bloom's Taxonomy

Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains
Bloom's Taxonomy was created in 1956 under the leadership of educational psychologist Dr Benjamin Bloom in order to promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating concepts, processes, procedures, and principles, rather than just remembering facts (rote learning). It is most often used when designing educational, training, and learning processes.
The Three Domains of Learning.
The committee identified three domains of educational activities or learning (Bloom, et al. 1956):
Cognitive: mental skills (knowledge)
Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude or self)
Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (skills)
Bloom's Revised Taxonomy.
Lorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom, and David Krathwohl revisited the cognitive domain in the mid-nineties and made some changes, with perhaps the three most prominent ones being (Anderson, Krathwohl, Airasian, Cruikshank, Mayer, Pintrich, Raths, Wittrock, 2000):
• changing the names in the six categories from noun to verb forms
• rearranging them as shown in the chart below
• creating a processes and levels of knowledge matrix.
- Donald Clark,
- Rex Heer, A Model of Learning Objectives, Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching, Iowa State University,
Read more: Andrew Churches, Bloom's Digital Taxonomy,

Bloom's Taxonomy and Web 2.0 tools by Samatha Penny
Web 2.0 is the read/write version of the internet; sometimes called the participatory web. We have collected a set of mostly FREE tools that students in the Learning Technologies program found useful.
Bloom's Taxonomy and Web 2.0 tools by Samatha Penny

Source: Margaret Riel, The Wikipedia of Learning Technologies from Pepperdine University, WEB 2.0: The Web You Help Create As Well As Use -
Online Collaboration Tools
"Learning is no longer limited to classrooms. The advent of new technological tools has made it possible for distantly located students to collaborate with their instructors and peers for learning new skills and acquiring enhanced knowledge. Distance and time is no longer a barrier for imbibing knowledge. But for ensuring that students remain motivated and focused in their learning and gain the most from their interaction with their fellow students and instructors, proper strategies for learning activities need to be formulated and implemented. Otherwise, students will feel neglected and disengaged. For effective implementation of learning strategies, right aids need to be used. These online collaboration tools will enable students to communicate and collaborate fast and easily. This will sustain their interest, improve focus and they would be able to contribute in best possible way and get quality results in turn".
Ref.: Sharon Thomson  (2014), Online Collaboration Tools and Strategies For Boosting Learning,

Howard Earl Gardner (born 1943) - Theory of Multiple Intelligences

"The Theory of Multiple Intelligences is a critique of the standard psychological view of intellect: there is a single intelligence, adequately measured by IQ or other short answer tests. Instead, on the basis of evidence from disparate sources, the theory claims that human beings have a number of relatively discrete intellectual capacities. IQ tests assess linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence, and sometimes spatial intelligence; and they are a reasonably good predictor of who will do well in a 20th (note: Not necessarily a 21st) century secular school. Humans, however, have several other significant intellectual capacities."

Howard Gardner questioned the traditional view that supports the existence of one single human intelligence. Gardner argues that each individual possesses several distinct intellectual forms of intelligences in varying degrees, rather than just one single intelligence. The seven initial intelligences identified by Gardner are: logical-mathematical, linguistic, spatial, musical body-kinaesthetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal. An eighth intelligence, naturalist, has since been added.
The seven intelligences Gardner defines are:
1. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence: this consists of the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking.
2. Linguistic Intelligence: this involves having a mastery of language. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively manipulate language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically. It also allows one to use language as a means to remember information.
3. Spatial Intelligence: this gives one the ability to manipulate and create mental images in order to solve problems. This intelligence is not limited to visual domains, Gardner notes that spatial intelligence is also formed in blind children.
4. Musical Intelligence: this encompasses the capability to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. (Auditory functions are required for a person to develop this intelligence in relation to pitch and tone, but it is not needed for the knowledge of rhythm.)
5. Bodily-Kinaesthetic Intelligence: this is the ability to use one's mental abilities to coordinate one's own bodily movements. This intelligence challenges the popular belief that mental and physical activities are unrelated.
6. The Personal Intelligences: this refers to understanding other people; it includes interpersonal feelings and the intentions of others. Intrapersonal intelligence: the ability to understand one's own feelings and motivations, knowing who you are, what you can do, what you want to do.
7. Naturalist: this intelligence designates the human ability to discriminate among living things (plants, animals) as well as sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds, rock configurations).
Source: ICTs in Education,

Read more:
- The Official Website of Multiple Intelligences Theory,
- Project Zer,
- The Good Project,
- Howard Gardner,

Tuesday, January 13, 2015

Calificările universitare și piaţa muncii

Registrul Naţional al Calificărilor - RNCIS
Sunt pregătite universitățile din România să răspundă atât cerințelor europene, cât și celor mondiale, pentru a oferi programe de studiu universitare în era digitală - 'Just Google It' Age? Se știe că există o importantă experiență în domeniul IT, al Informaticii și al utilizării TIC în sistemul de educație, însă ministerul de resort, cadrele didactice, studenții și elevii, specialiștii în știintele educației și în strategii educaționale, au viziunea și determinarea să se adapteze acestor provocări? Și în spațiul American, și în cel European, deja au apărut preocupări importante și susținute în acest sens. De exemplu, în luna martie 2015, se va desfășura 21st Century Academic Forum at Harvard, Boston, USA, cu tema Teaching, Learning, and Research in the 'Just Google It' Age.
În România, încă din anul 2011, cu ocazia Conferinței Internaționale "The eduVision 2020 initiative will support the national eLearning project" ( ), ce a avut loc la Palatul Parlamentului, a reieșit nevoia de noi calificări universitare: dezvoltator de e-learning și designer instrucțional.
Sursa imagine: (Learning outcomes)

Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Ştiinţifice:
- Autoritatea Națională pentru Calificări (ANC):
- Registrul Naţional al Calificărilor din Învăţământul Superior (RNCIS):

Registrului Naţional al Calificărilor din Învățământul Superior (RNCIS) este o aplicaţie informatică organizată sub forma unei baze de date naţionale ce cuprinde toate calificările acordate de instituţiile de învăţământ superior din România, constituind un instrument de lucru pentru universităţi, studenţi şi partenerii sociali.

Reguli noi de acreditare a programelor universitare:
- Acreditarea unui program de studiu de către Agenţia Română pentru Asigurarea Calităţii în Învăţământul Superior (ARACIS) este condiţionată de înscrierea şi validarea calificărilor. Introducerea unor noi calificări în RNCIS este condiţionată de existenţa a minim unei ocupaţii în Clasificarea Ocupaţiilor din România (COR) destinate acelei calificări.
- Modificările şi actualizările incluse în noua metodologie răspund atât solicitărilor angajatorilor, cât şi cerinţelor europene în domeniu, dar au şi rolul de a reduce decalajul dintre competenţele absolvenţilor de învăţământ superior şi nevoile pieţei muncii.
- Elaborarea noii metodologii de înscriere şi înregistrare a calificărilor din învăţământul superior în Registrul Naţional al Calificărilor din Învăţământul Superior (RNCIS) se fundamentează pe directivele europene în domeniu.
- Instituțiile de învățământ superior au obligația de a introduce informațiile referitoare la calificările pe care le dezvoltă prin oferta de studii în secțiunea specifică a Registrului Național al Calificărilor din Învățământul Superior, conform Metodologiei, până la data de 31 decembrie 2015. Universităţile vor trebui să demonstreze că programele de studiu vor genera competenţe şi calificări cerute de piaţa muncii.

- Metodologia de înscriere şi înregistrare a calificărilor universitare – ,
- Metodologie de alocare a fondurilor bugetare pentru finanțarea de bază și finanțarea suplimentară, a instituțiilor de învățământ superior de stat din România -

Programe de studii (nivel - Licenta, master, doctorat):,1&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL
- Calificari universitare (Informatica, IT), Standarde :

1. Administrator de retea de calculatoare 2. Consultant in informatica 3. Designer instructional 4. Dezvoltator de e-learning 5. Dezvoltator web 6. Director departament/divizie informatica 7. Inginer de sistem software 8. Manager de inovare 9. Manager de proiect 10. Programator de sistem informatic 11. Proiectant baze de date 12. Proiectant sisteme informatice 13. Specialist in domeniul proiectarii asistate de calculator.


Nivelul EQF (Cadrul European al Calificărilor) Niveluri 1-8:
1 – educatie primara (clasele 1-4)
2 – studii secundare inferioare (gimnaziu, clasele 5-8)
3 - studii secundare superioare (liceu, clasele 9-12)
4 – studii profesionale (scoli profesionale si postliceale)
5 – sudii superioare de scurta durata (licenta, univ.)
6 - sudii superioare de lunga durata (licenta, ing., arh., med.)
7 – studii superioare de master (Sc. M)
8 – studii doctorale (Dr.)

Higher Education Reforms in Romania. Between the Bologna Process and National Challenges. Editors: Adrian Curaj, Ligia Deca, Eva Egron-Polak, Jamil Salm, Springer  Open , 2015 -
- The evolution of total student numbers in Romania (1990–2011); Source:
- Registrul National al Furnizorilor de Formare profesionala a adultilor:
-Strategia Autorității Naționale pentru Calificări - 2015 în perspectivă – 2020:

Saturday, January 10, 2015

21st Century Academic Forum at Harvard

Conference at Harvard, March 8-10 2015, Boston, USA

The theme - Teaching, Learning, and Research in the 'Just Google It' Age.
"The 21st Century Academic Forum is a global group of researchers and educators dedicated to supporting research that has the potential to influence the shaping of educational policy and practices to more effectively prepare students for the unique challenges of the 21st century. An overwhelming body of research indicates that students are leaving formal educational institutions inadequately prepared for the workforce and their lives in the knowledge-based economy".

We encourage submissions that approach this theme from a variety of perspectives under three major topic tracks:
  1. teaching and learning in the 21st century;
  2. creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship;
  3. academic research for the 21st century.
Objective: The primary aim of the conference is to bring together an international group of researchers and practitioners to encourage and support the development of a new framework for better understanding the dynamic and interconnected nature of education, research, business, and life in the age of ubiquitous statement 'Just Google It'. When it takes a mere few seconds to find information about almost any topic, researchers and practitioners need to consider the implications of instant access to information in our traditional system of instruction and assessment.

Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century
The primary aim of this topic track is to encourage and support researchers to investigate the challenges educators face in preparing citizens for the changing landscape of the 21st century. Here is a partial list of topics under the Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century theme:

Academic Advising and Counseling
Acoustics in Education
Adult and Continuing Education
Adult Education Human
-Resources Management
Alternative Practices in Assessment and Evaluation APD/Listening
Application of Technology in Career Education
Application of Technology in Continuous Education
Application of  Technology in Lifelong Education
Art Education
Assessment in the 21st Century
Audio-Visual Education
Barriers to Learning
Biology Education
Chemistry Education
Cloud Computing and Mobile Learning Communication and Collaboration
Communications Management
Comparative Education
Contemporary Pedagogy Issues
Continuing Education
Cooperative Education
Curriculum Reform Knowledge Management Curriculum, Research, and Development
Digital Course Design and Delivery
Digital Divide
Distance Education
E-learning E-school and E-university
Early Childhood Education 
Education Counselor
Education Curriculum Research and Development
Education Policy and Administration/Leadership
Educational Administration
Educational Communications and Technology 
Educational Foundations
Educational Leadership
Educational Measurement and Evaluation
Educational Reform Organizational Management
Educational Technology
Educational Psychology
Educational Theory Management
Elementary Education
Ethical Issues in Education
Family Education
Game-Based Learning 
Geography Education
Health Education
Higher Education
History Education
Home Education
Human Computer Interaction
ICT in Teaching and Learning 
Imaginative Education
Indigenous Education
Indigenous Perspectives and Diversity Issues Information and Computer Education
Information Systems
Information Technology Management
Innovation Management in Ed Technologies
K12 Education Issues
Kinesiology and Leisure Science
Knowledge Management 
Language Education 
Leadership and University Administration
Learner Mobility and Transitions 
Learning Analytics and Mobile Learning
Life and Career Skills Education
Managing Cultural Diversity
Mathematics Education
Mobile Applications
Mobile Social Media and User Generated Content Motivation in Online Learning
Multi-Virtual Environment
Music Education
New Trends in the Higher Education Area Paperless Examination Systems
Physical Education
Practical Teaching Reform
Preschool Education
Project-Based Learning
Psychological Studies in Education
Reading Education
Rehabilitation Counseling
Religion and Education Studies
Rural Education
School and Society
School Management Management Psychology Science Education
Second Life Use in Education
Secondary Education Social Development Economic Management
Social Media in Teaching and Learning 
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Social Studies Education
Special Education
STEM Education 
Student Affairs
Student Support in Education
Teacher Training
Technology in Music Education 
Trends in the Higher Education
Physical Education
Practical Teaching Reform
Preschool Education
Project-Based Learning  
Reading Education 
Religion and Education Studies
Rural Education
School and Society
School Management 
Science Education
Second Life Use in Education
Secondary Education
Social Development Economic Management
Social Media in Teaching and Learning 
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Social Studies Education
Special Education
STEM Education 
Student Affairs
Student Support in Education
Teacher Education and Training
Writing Education
Youth Empowerment

The Conference Proceedings:
 - The International Journal of 21st Century Education (ISSN: 2330-1244)
- The International Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship (ISSN: 2333-9659)
- Journal of Language Learning and Teaching for the 21st Century (ISSN: 2333-9640)

Friday, January 2, 2015

Thinking is evolution of learning over time

Culture of Learning and Need of Learning: Learning as process and metalanguage

„Thinking is evolution of learning over time” M. Vlada, 2014
„Găndirea este evoluția învățării peste timp” M. Vlada, 2014

"Learning is evolution of knowledge over time." Roger E. Bohn, 1994

“Knowledge is evolution of thinking and languages over time” M. Vlada, 2015.

*** pseudo-ecuations / pseudo-ecuații © M. Vlada 2015 ***


In Romanian

*** concepts in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence / concepte din Informatică și Inteligență artificială
ALGORITHM = LOGIC + CONTROL (R. Kowalski 1979)



Robert Kowalski, Department of Computing Imperial College London -
- Computational Logic and HumanThinking: How to be Artificially Intelligent, Cambridge University Press, 2010 - online:
- History of Logic Programming, In the History of Logic series, edited by Dov Gabbay and John Woods, Elsevier, 2014 - Online:

Roger E. Bohn, University of California San DiegoCA, USA
- Bohn, R. E. (2005) From Art to Science in Manufacturing: The Evolution of Technological Knowledge, Technology, Information and Operations Management Vol 1, No 2, 1-82
 - Bohn, R. E. (1994) “Measuring and Managing Technological Knowledge”, Sloan Management Review, Fall 1994
 - Bohn, R. E. (1998), Measuring and Managing Technological Knowledge, in Dale Neef a. o., Eds., The EconomicImpact of Knowledge, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston,295-314
- online:

- Douglas Thomas, John Seely Brown (2011), A New Culture of Learning: Cultivating the Imagination for a World of Constant Chang.
"By exploring play, innovation, and the cultivation of the imagination as cornerstones of learning, the authors create a vision of learning for the future that is achievable, scalable and one that grows along with the technology that fosters it and the people who engage with it. The result is a new form of culture in which knowledge is seen as fluid and evolving, the personal is both enhanced and refined in relation to the collective, and the ability to manage, negotiate and participate in the world is governed by the play of the imagination. Typically, when we think of culture, we think of an existing, stable entity that changes and evolves over long periods of time. In A New Culture of Learning, Thomas and Brown explore a second sense of culture, one that responds to its surroundings organically. It not only adapts, it integrates change into its process as one of its environmental variables. Replete with stories, this is a book that looks at the challenges that our education and learning environments face in a fresh way." Source (REVIEWS):

The 21st century is a world in constant change. "A new culture of learning" is based on several basic assumptions about the world and how learning occurs:
  1. The world is changing faster than ever and our skill sets have a shorter life
  2. Understanding play is critical to understanding learning
  3. The world is getting more connected that ever before – can that be a resource?
  4. In this connected world, mentorship takes on new importance and meaning
  5. Challenges we face are multi-faceted requiring systems thinking & socio-technical sensibilities
  6. Skills are important but so are mind sets and dispositions
  7. Innovation is more important than ever – but turns on our ability to cultivate imagination
  8. A new culture of learning needs to leverage social & technical infrastructures in new ways
  9. Play is the basis for cultivating imagination and innovation

Education = A process of teaching, training and learning, especially in schools or colleges, to improve knowledge and develop skills
Learning = The acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or being taught
Thinking = The process of considering or reasoning about something
Source: Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

About Romania, e-Learning:

Gândirea și învățarea sunt procese între mediul real și mediul virtual /
Thinking and learning are processes between real and virtual

Cand suntem elevi, studenti, si dupa aceea multa vreme, nu ne preocupam sa intelegem ce inseamna de fapt invatarea, ce este gandirea, ce este o stiinta, ce este un limbaj, ce este o problema, prin urmare ce sunt conceptele fundamentale pe care le utilizam in aplicarea cunostintele si competentelor acumulate in timp. Probabil ca nici nu am putea intelege aceste concepte, decat dupa diverse experiente acumulate in activitatea profesionala, stiintifica, in viata obisnuita. In scoala, la facultate si apoi la locul de munca unde ne exercitam profesia, suntem preocupati sa indeplinim atributiile curente privind rezolvarea problemelor, in functie de cunostintele, competentele si experientele acumulate pana la momentul respectiv.

Paradigme ale învăţării - Triada OM – SOCIETATE - NATURĂ

  • Nevoia de învăţare şi procesul învăţării;
  • Nevoia de adaptare la schimbări, reforme, evenimente și decizii la nivel personal, în societate, local sau mondial;
  • Nevoia de apărare faţă de semeni, faţă de societate şi faţă de natură.
OMUL pentru a trăi în bunăstare şi fericire, şi pentru a se adapta la condiţiile şi regulile din societate, are nevoie să ÎNVEŢE şi să-şi DEZVOLTE PERSONALITATEA pe tot parcursul vieţii. Prin procesul de învăţare are acces la tezaurul cunoaşterii mondiale şi astfel îşi poate îmbunătăţi viaţa şi modul de adaptare la toate schimbările, reformele şi evenimentele vieţii sale şi ale societăţii. Viaţa şi experienţa profesională ale omului îl învaţă că are nevoie şi de apărare, aceasta se referă la influenţele negative din partea omului, din partea societăţii şi din partea naturii, uneori chiar din partea propriilor acţiuni şi decizii.

Thursday, January 1, 2015

„Sorcova, Veselă” in Romanian and English

Sorcova, veselă, ca pomii să-nfloriți și ca ei să-mbătrâniți! 
Dogwood twig, merry sprig, May you live long, may you grow strong! 

In Romanian 
Sorcova, Veselă / Să trăiţi, Să-mbătrâniţi: / Ca un măr, /  Ca un păr, /  Ca un fir de trandafir. / Tare ca piatra, / Iute ca săgeata; / Tare ca fierul, /  Iute ca oţelul. /  La anul și la mulți anï!

Anul Nou este marcat în comunitatea românească, de urarea cu plugușorul, cu sorcova, cu buhaiul, Vasilcă și jocurile mimice cu măști de animale sau personaje țărănești. Colindatul sau uratul pe la case constituie un obicei străvechi, desigur precreștin, dar care, în timp, a ajuns să facă, s-ar zice, casă bună cu creștinismul. Cântecele respective atrag norocul sau binecuvântarea asupra oamenilor și gospodăriilor, pentru tot anul care urmează. Trebuie spus că Plugușorul și Sorcova sunt legate de înnoirea anului, neavând nici o legatură cu ciclul religios al Crăciunului.

In English 
"Sorcova" is one of those ancient folk customs in which, on New Year's Day, kids go around with a little stick adorned with flowers and tap someone's shoulder to wish them all the best in the New Year. They also sing a cute little song. Sorcova means only that, the little flower-wrapped stick, so it's a highly idiosyncratic word with no equivalent in English. Thus, the first answer that comes to mind is: you don't translate it. No more than you'd translate "Greensleeves" through "mâneci verzi." Or "Auld Lang Syne" through...gee, I don't know, really.

By Ion Minulescu (1940) 
May you look with merry eyes / at that little bunch I rise,/  tiny flowers may they bring / you an everlasting spring !

All the fragrance, all the bloom, / shall a fairy on her loom /  weave for you, and smile, and wait / to open the golden gate !

 May your steps be quick and strong, / always right and never wrong ! / May you always find the 'clue', / see your dearest dreams come true, / have it always as you like, / and each time a lucky strike !

 Healthy, wealthy, spick-and-span, and as merry as you can !

- Sorcova - cântec pentru copii de iarnă animat TraLaLa Muzica: Nathalie Gheorghiu, Text: Maria Ene, Interpretare: Sorin Radulescu, Producator: Bis Music -
- Imagine:
- Plugușorul:
- Zdob și Zdub, Hăitura -