Tuesday, November 22, 2011

PageRank and Google

The name "PageRank" is a trademark of Google, and the PageRank process has been patented (U.S. Patent 6,285,999). However, the patent is assigned to Stanford University and not to Google. Google has exclusive license rights on the patent from Stanford University. The university received 1.8 million shares of Google in exchange for use of the patent; the shares were sold in 2005 for $336 million. (Google history)

PageRank was developed at Stanford University by Larry Page (hence the name Page-Rank) and Sergey Brin as part of a research project about a new kind of search engine.

Relevance: As Larry said long ago, we want to give you back “exactly what you want.” When Google was founded, one key innovation was PageRank, a technology that determined the “importance” of a webpage by looking at what other pages link to it, as well as other data. Today we use more than 200 signals, including PageRank, to order websites, and we update these algorithms on a weekly basis. For example, we offer personalized search results based on your web history and location. (www.google.com)

Note: Massimo Marchiori - He was the creator of HyperSearch, a search engine where the results were based not only on single pages ranks, but also on the relationship between the single pages and the rest of the web. Afterwards, Google co-founders Page and Brin cited HyperSearch when they introduced PageRank. He is one of the co-authors of the world standard for privacy on the Web, P3P. He started the XML Query effort at W3C, and is one of the authors of the XQuery family of world standard for querying information on the Web.
Ref.: Page, Lawrence and Brin, Sergey and Motwani, Rajeev and Winograd, Terry (January 29, 1998). "The PageRank Citation Ranking: Bringing Order to the Web." (Stanford University, Retrieved May 12, 2011)
- http://ilpubs.stanford.edu:8090/422/1/1999-66.pdf

"Since it is very difficult even for experts to evaluate search engines, search engine bias is particularly insidious. A good example was OpenText, which was reported to be selling companies the right to be listed at the top of the search results for particular queries [Marchiori 97]. This type of bias is much more insidious than advertising, because it is not clear who "deserves" to be there, and who is willing to pay money to be listed."

"Moore’s Law was defined in 1965 as a doubling every 18 months in processor power. It has held remarkably true, not just for processors, but for other important system parameters such as disk as well. If we assume that Moore’s law holds for the future, we need only 10 more doublings, or 15 years to reach our goal of indexing everything everyone in the US has written for a year for a price that a small company could afford. Of course, hardware experts are somewhat concerned Moore’s Law may not continue to hold for the next 15 years, but there are certainly a lot of interesting centralized applications even if we only get part of the way to our hypothetical example."
Ref.: The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine by Sergey Brin and Lawrence Page, Computer Networks and ISDN Systems 30: 107–117, 1998.
- http://infolab.stanford.edu/pub/papers/google.pdf (pdf)

Google philosophy (Ten things we know to be true)
5. You don’t need to be at your desk to need an answer.
"The world is increasingly mobile: people want access to information wherever they are, whenever they need it. We’re pioneering new technologies and offering new solutions for mobile services that help people all over the globe to do any number of tasks on their phone, from checking email and calendar events to watching videos, not to mention the several different ways to access Google search on a phone. In addition, we’re hoping to fuel greater innovation for mobile users everywhere with Android, a free, open source mobile platform. Android brings the openness that shaped the Internet to the mobile world. Not only does Android benefit consumers, who have more choice and innovative new mobile experiences, but it opens up revenue opportunities for carriers, manufacturers and developers."

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